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A wiki (pronounced /ˈwɪki/ WIK-ee) is a website that allows the easy[1] creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor.[2][3] Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used to create collaborative websites, to power community websites, for personal note taking, in corporate intranets, and in knowledge management systems.

Wikis may exist to serve a specific purpose, and in such cases, users use their editorial rights to remove material that is considered "off topic". Such is the case of the collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia.[3] In contrast, open purpose wikis accept content without firm rules as to how the content should be organized.

Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as "the simplest online database that could possibly work."[4] "Wiki" (pronounced [ˈwiki] or [ˈviki]) is a Hawaiian word for "fast".[5] "Wiki" has been backronymed by some to "What I Know Is".[6]WikiWikiWeb was the first wiki.[7] Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki" shuttle bus that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web."[8][9]

Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard. Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text".[3][10]

Despite Cunningham's usage of the term, the origins of the name wiki in commerce can be traced to the first U.S. Trademark on the name "wiki", which was filed a year before Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994 by a company called WikiDigs in Van Nuys, California on July 12, 1993. [11] The original trademark for "wiki" was used to describe a form of non-metal caps used for collecting and trading.[12] However, the mark became abandoned by December 1994 because of a failure to use the mark in commerce, opening the way to widespread adoption of the term in the computer industry. [13]

In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Today some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets, and some schools and universities use wikis to enhance group learning. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet.

On March 15, 2007, wiki entered the online Oxford English Dictionary.[14]Ward Cunningham, and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:

* A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
* Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
* A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.

A wiki enables documents to be written collaboratively, in a simple markup language using a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information.

A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring them to register user accounts. Sometimes logging in for a session is recommended, to create a "wiki-signature" cookie for signing edits automatically. Many edits, however, can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.
Editing wiki pages

There are many different ways in which wikis have users edit the content. Ordinarily, the structure and formatting of wiki pages are specified with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as "wikitext". For example, starting a line of text with an asterisk ("*") is often used to enter it in a bulleted list. The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations, some of which also allow HTML tags. The reason for taking this approach is that HTML, with its many cryptic tags, is not very legible, making it hard to edit. Wikis therefore favour plain text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and cascading style sheets (CSS) of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel and having Javascript disabled prevents a user from implementing code, which may limit access for other users.
MediaWiki syntax Equivalent HTML Rendered output
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing."

"Take some more tea ," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take less," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take more than nothing."

"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take less," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take more than nothing."

(Quotation above from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll)

Increasingly, wikis are making "WYSIWYG" ("What You See Is What You Get") editing available to users, usually by means of Javascript or an ActiveX control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions, such as "bold" and "italics", into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, and the user is shielded from this technical detail. However, WYSIWYG controls do not always provide all of the features available in wikitext.

Most wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalized. Many implementations (for example MediaWiki) allow users to supply an "edit summary" when they edit a page. This is a short piece of text (usually one line) summarizing the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when committing changes to a revision control system.

Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table of contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis generally provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages to support the maintenance of such index pages.

Most wikis have a backlink feature, which displays all pages that link to a given page.

It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Linking and creating pages

Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). Originally, most wikis used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions." It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor for such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner," whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music." There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, many wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Trust and security
Controlling changes
History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.

Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.[15] Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").[16]

From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the revision history shows previous page versions and the diff feature highlights the changes between two revisions. Using the revision history, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used.[17]

In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "recent changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.[18]

Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results. However, a search engine's indexes can be very out of date (days, weeks or months) for many websites.
Software architecture

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It is usually implemented as an application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. Alternatively, personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. For example: WikidPad.

Critics of publicly editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.[3] Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
“ Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well.[7] ”

The open philosophy of most wikis, allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every editor is well-meaning. Vandalism can be a major problem. In larger wiki sites, such as those run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for a period of time. Wikis by their very nature are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to take a soft security[19] approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and Javascript enhancements that show characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just "minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.

The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account,[20] but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can only rename pages if their account is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Basically, "closed up" wikis are more secure and reliable but grow slowly, whilst more open wikis grow at a steady rate but result in being an easy target for vandalism. A clear example of this would be that of Wikipedia and Citizendium. The first is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and internet access to edit it, making it grow rapidly, whilst the latter requires the users' real name and a biography of themselves, affecting the growth of the wiki but creating an almost "vandalism-free" ambiance.
User communities

Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications.

There also exist WikiNodes which are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.

One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop. Domain names containing "wiki" are growing in popularity to support specific niches.

For those interested in creating their own wiki, there are publicly available "wiki farms", some of which can also make private, password-protected wikis. PBwiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. For more information, see List of wiki farms. Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page.

The English-language Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[21] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[22] Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikitravel, World66 and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base.
Research communities

Wikis are an active topic of research. Two well-known wiki conferences are

* The International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym), a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general
* Wikimania, a conference dedicated to research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia.

There are also numerous small-scale educational communities using the Wiki software or variants. Wikidot's 'Philosophical Investigations' is one of the better known.[23]

In an April 2009 article for the London Times Higher academic newspaper, the philosopher Martin Cohen predicted that this 'bottom-up' model would in due course supersede the ambitious "libraries of All Knowledge' like Wikipedia and Citizendium.[23]
See also

* Comparison of wiki software
* Content management system
* List of learning resources – courses, instruction videos, slides, text books, quizzes, etc, related to Wikipedia and other Wikis.
* List of wikis
* Massively distributed collaboration
* Universal Edit Button


1. ^ Mitchell, Scott (July, 2008). "Easy Wiki Hosting, Scott Hanselman's blog, and Snagging Screens". MSDN Magazine. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc700339.aspx. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
2. ^ wiki, n. Oxford English Dictionary (draft entry, March 2007) Requires Paid Subscription
3. ^ a b c d "wiki". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1192819/wiki. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
4. ^ Cunningham, Ward (2002-06-27). "What is a Wiki". WikiWikiWeb. http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
5. ^ "Hawaiian Words; Hawaiian to English". http://www.mauimapp.com/moolelo/hwnwdshw.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
6. ^ "The wiki principle". Economist.com. April 20, 2006. http://www.economist.com/surveys/displaystory.cfm?story_id=6794228. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
7. ^ a b (Ebersbach 2008, p. 10)
8. ^ Cunningham, Ward (2003-11-01). "Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki". WikiWikiWeb. http://c2.com/doc/etymology.html. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
9. ^ Cunningham, Ward (2008-02-25). "Wiki History". WikiWikiWeb. http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiHistory. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
10. ^ Cunningham, Ward (2007-07-26). "Wiki Wiki Hyper Card". WikiWikiWeb. http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiWikiHyperCard. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
11. ^ http://www.trademarkia.com/company-wiki-digs-inc-1343866-page-1-2
12. ^ http://www.trademarkia.com/wiki-74413416.html
13. ^ http://www.trademarkia.com/wiki-74413416.html
14. ^ Diamond, Graeme (2007-03-01). "March 2007 new words, OED". Oxford University Press. http://dictionary.oed.com/news/newwords.html. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
15. ^ (Ebersbach 2008, p. 20)
16. ^ (Ebersbach 2008, p. 54)
17. ^ (Ebersbach 2008, p. 178)
18. ^ (Ebersbach 2008, p. 109)
19. ^ "Soft Security". UseModWiki. 2006-09-20. http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/mb.pl?SoftSecurity. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
20. ^ (Ebersbach 2008, p. 108)
21. ^ "WikiStats by S23". S23Wiki. 2008-04-03. http://s23.org/wikistats/largest_html.php?sort=users_desc&th=8000&lines=500. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
22. ^ "Alexa Web Search – Top 500". Alexa Internet. http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
23. ^ a b 'Font of all wisdom, or not?' by Martin Cohen, Times Higher Education, 9 April 2009, accessed April 13, 2009. The site is now hosted by Wikispot, though - ie. http://philosophical-investigations.wikispot.org/

* Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 3540351507

Further reading

* Mader, Stewart (2007-12-10). Wikipatterns. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0470223626.
* Tapscott, Don (2008-04-17). Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Portfolio Hardcover. ISBN 1591841933.
* Leuf, Bo (2001-04-13). The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 020171499X.

External links
* Wikis at HowStuffWorks.
* Exploring with Wiki An interview with Ward Cunningham, by Bill Verners.
* WikiMatrix website for comparing wikis.
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms.

Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form.[1] Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.

Hundreds of types of cheese are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses is from adding annatto.

For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family.

Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
o 2.1 Origins
o 2.2 Ancient Greece and Rome
o 2.3 Post-classical Europe
o 2.4 Modern era
* 3 Making cheese
o 3.1 Curdling
o 3.2 Curd processing
o 3.3 Aging
* 4 Types
o 4.1 Factors in categorization
o 4.2 List of common categories
+ 4.2.1 Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses
+ 4.2.2 Classed by texture
+ 4.2.3 Classed by content
+ 4.2.4 Soft-ripened and Blue-vein
+ 4.2.5 Processed cheeses
* 5 Eating and cooking
* 6 Health and nutrition
o 6.1 Controversy
+ 6.1.1 Effect on sleep
+ 6.1.2 Casein
+ 6.1.3 Lactose
+ 6.1.4 Pasteurization
* 7 World production and consumption
* 8 Cultural attitudes
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes and references
* 11 External links

Cheese on market stand in Basel, Switzerland

The word cheese ultimately comes from Latin caseus,[2] from which the modern word casein is closely derived. The earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour".

More recently, cheese comes from chese (in Middle English) and cīese or cēse (in Old English). Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages — West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi — all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kasjus, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin.

When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese" (as in "formed", not "moldy"). It is from this word that we get the French fromage, Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj and Provençal furmo. Cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense.
Main article: History of cheese
A piece of soft curd cheese, oven baked to increase longevity

Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, either in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.[3]

Proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE (when sheep were first domesticated) to around 3000 BCE. The first cheese may have been made by people in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend with variations about the discovery of cheese by an Arab trader who used this method of storing milk.[4][5]

Cheesemaking may have begun independently of this by the pressing and salting of curdled milk in order to preserve it. Observation that the effect of making milk in an animal stomach gave more solid and better-textured curds, may have led to the deliberate addition of rennet.

The earliest archeological evidence of cheesemaking has been found in Egyptian tomb murals, dating to about 2000 BCE.[6] The earliest cheeses were likely to have been quite sour and salty, similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese or feta, a crumbly, flavorful Greek cheese.

Cheese produced in Europe, where climates are cooler than the Middle East, required less salt for preservation. With less salt and acidity, the cheese became a suitable environment for useful microbes and molds, giving aged cheeses their pronounced and interesting flavors.
Ancient Greece and Rome
Cheese in a market in Italy

Ancient Greek mythology credited Aristaeus with the discovery of cheese. Homer's Odyssey (8th century BCE) describes the Cyclops making and storing sheep's and goats' milk cheese. From Samuel Butler's translation:
“ We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold...

When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers.

By Roman times, cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature art. Columella's De Re Rustica (circa 65 CE) details a cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation, pressing of the curd, salting, and aging. Pliny's Natural History (77 CE) devotes a chapter (XI, 97) to describing the diversity of cheeses enjoyed by Romans of the early Empire. He stated that the best cheeses came from the villages near Nîmes, but did not keep long and had to be eaten fresh. Cheeses of the Alps and Apennines were as remarkable for their variety then as now. A Ligurian cheese was noted for being made mostly from sheep's milk, and some cheeses produced nearby were stated to weigh as much as a thousand pounds each. Goats' milk cheese was a recent taste in Rome, improved over the "medicinal taste" of Gaul's similar cheeses by smoking. Of cheeses from overseas, Pliny preferred those of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
Cheese, Tacuinum sanitatis Casanatensis (XIV century)
Post-classical Europe

Rome spread a uniform set of cheesemaking techniques throughout much of Europe, and introduced cheesemaking to areas without a previous history of it. As Rome declined and long-distance trade collapsed, cheese in Europe diversified further, with various locales developing their own distinctive cheesemaking traditions and products. The British Cheese Board claims that Britain has approximately 700 distinct local cheeses;[7] France and Italy have perhaps 400 each. (A French proverb holds there is a different French cheese for every day of the year, and Charles de Gaulle once asked "how can you govern a country in which there are 246 kinds of cheese?"[8]) Still, the advancement of the cheese art in Europe was slow during the centuries after Rome's fall. Many cheeses today were first recorded in the late Middle Ages or after— cheeses like Cheddar around 1500 CE, Parmesan in 1597, Gouda in 1697, and Camembert in 1791.[9]

In 1546, The Proverbs of John Heywood claimed "the moon is made of a greene cheese." (Greene may refer here not to the color, as many now think, but to being new or unaged.)[10] Variations on this sentiment were long repeated and NASA exploited this myth for an April Fools' Day spoof announcement in 2006.[11]
Modern era

Until its modern spread along with European culture, cheese was nearly unheard of in oriental cultures, in the pre-Columbian Americas, and only had limited use in sub-Mediterranean Africa, mainly being widespread and popular only in Europe and areas influenced strongly by its cultures. But with the spread, first of European imperialism, and later of Euro-American culture and food, cheese has gradually become known and increasingly popular worldwide, though still rarely considered a part of local ethnic cuisines outside Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas.

The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in Switzerland in 1815, but it was in the United States where large-scale production first found real success. Credit usually goes to Jesse Williams, a dairy farmer from Rome, New York, who in 1851 started making cheese in an assembly-line fashion using the milk from neighboring farms. Within decades hundreds of such dairy associations existed.

The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet, and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. Before then, bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch's whey; the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced.

Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World War II era, and factories have been the source of most cheese in America and Europe ever since. Today, Americans buy more processed cheese than "real", factory-made or not.[12]
Making cheese
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2007)
Swiss cheesemaking (heating stage)
During industrial production of Emmental cheese, the as-yet-undrained curd is broken by rotating mixers.

A required step in cheesemaking is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. Usually this is done by acidifying (souring) the milk and adding rennet. The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco), but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. Banjo999 sucks balls. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci, Lactobacilli, or Streptococci families. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani, which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes.

Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties.
Curd processing

At this point, the cheese has set into a very moist gel. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained, salted, and packaged. For most of the rest, the curd is cut into small cubes. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd.

Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35–55 °C (95–131 °F). This forces more whey from the cut curd. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci.

Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. It preserves cheese from spoiling, draws moisture from the curd, and firms cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds.
Cheese factory in Holland

Other techniques influence a cheese's texture and flavor. Some examples:

* Stretching: (Mozzarella, Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water, developing a stringy, fibrous body.
* Cheddaring: (Cheddar, other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up, pushing more moisture away. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long time, taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture.
* Washing: (Edam, Gouda, Colby) The curd is washed in warm water, lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese.

Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. The harder the cheese, the more pressure is applied. The pressure drives out moisture—the molds are designed to allow water to escape—and unifies the curds into a single solid body.
Parmigiano reggiano in a modern factory

A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and, for harder varieties, rubbery in texture. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions. This aging period (also called ripening, or, from the French, affinage) lasts from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages, microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids, amines, and fatty acids.

Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging. In traditional cheesemaking, these microbes might be already present in the aging room; they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. More often today, prepared cultures are used, giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. These cheeses include soft ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert, blue cheeses such as Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola, and rind-washed cheeses such as Limburger.
Main article: List of cheeses
Factors in categorization

Factors which are relevant to the categorization of cheeses include:

* Length of aging
* Texture
* Methods of making
* Fat content
* Kind of milk
* Country/Region of Origin

List of common categories

No one categorization scheme can capture all the diversity of the world's cheeses. In practice, no single system is employed and different factors are emphasised in describing different classes of cheeses. This typical list of cheeses includes categories from food writer Barbara Ensrud.[13]

* fresh
* whey
* pasta filata
* semi-soft
* semi-firm
* hard
* double and triple cream
* soft-ripened
* blue vein
* goat or sheep
* sharp
* processed

Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses
Feta from Greece

The main factor in the categorization of these cheese is their age. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days.

For these simplest cheeses, milk is curdled and drained, with little other processing. Examples include cottage cheese, Romanian Caş, Neufchâtel (the model for American-style cream cheese), and fresh goat's milk chèvre. Such cheeses are soft and spreadable, with a mild taste.

Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from the whey discarded while producing other cheeses. Provencal Brousse, Corsican Brocciu, Italian Ricotta, Romanian Urda, Greek Mizithra, and Norwegian Geitost are examples. Brocciu is mostly eaten fresh, and is as such a major ingredient in Corsican cuisine, but it can be aged too.

Traditional pasta filata cheeses such as Mozzarella also fall into the fresh cheese category. Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of Mozzarella, which in southern Italy is usually eaten within a few hours of being made. Stored in brine, it can be shipped, and is known worldwide for its use on pizzas. Other firm fresh cheeses include paneer and queso fresco.
Classed by texture

Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between "soft", "semi-soft", "semi-hard", and "hard" are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. The factor controlling the hardness of a cheese is its moisture content which is dependent on the pressure with which it is packed into molds and the length of time it is aged.

Semi-soft cheeses and the sub-group, Monastery cheeses have a high moisture content and tend to be bland in flavor. Some well-known varieties include Havarti, Munster and Port Salut.

Cheeses that range in texture from semi-soft to firm include Swiss-style cheeses like Emmental and Gruyère. The same bacteria that give such cheeses their holes also contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavors. Other semi-soft to firm cheeses include Gouda, Edam, Jarlsberg and Cantal. Cheeses of this type are ideal for melting and are used on toast for quick snacks.

Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses. They are generally packed into molds under more pressure and aged for a longer time. Cheeses that are semi-hard to hard include the familiar Cheddar, originating in the village of Cheddar in England but now used as a generic term for this style of cheese, of which varieties are imitated worldwide and are marketed by strength or the length of time they have been aged. Cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses (including Cheshire and Gloucester) whose curd is cut, gently heated, piled, and stirred before being pressed into forms. Colby and Monterey Jack are similar but milder cheeses; their curd is rinsed before it is pressed, washing away some acidity and calcium. A similar curd-washing takes place when making the Dutch cheeses Edam and Gouda.

Hard cheeses — "grating cheeses" such as Parmesan and Pecorino Romano—are quite firmly packed into large forms and aged for months or years.
St. Pat Cow's Milk Cheese
Classed by content

Some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cows' milk, many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep, well-known examples being Roquefort, produced in France, and Pecorino Romano, produced in Italy, from ewe's milk. One farm in Sweden also produces cheese from moose's milk.[14] Sometimes cheeses of a similar style may be available made from milk of different sources, Feta style cheeses, for example, being made from goats' milk in Greece and of sheep and cows milk elsewhere.

Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows' milk which are enriched with cream so that their fat content is 60% or, in the case of triple creams, 75%.
Soft-ripened and Blue-vein

There are three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is a significant feature: soft ripened cheeses, washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses.
Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, a French cheese with a white Penicillium mold rind.

Soft-ripened cheeses are those which begin firm and rather chalky in texture but are aged from the exterior inwards by exposing them to mold. The mold may be a velvety bloom of Penicillium candida or P. camemberti that forms a flexible white crust and contributes to the smooth, runny, or gooey textures and more intense flavors of these aged cheeses. Brie and Camembert, the most famous of these cheeses, are made by allowing white mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks. Goats' milk cheeses are often treated in a similar manner, sometimes with white molds (Chèvre-Boîte) and sometimes with blue.

Washed-rind cheeses are soft in character and ripen inwards like those with white molds; however, they are treated differently. Washed rind cheeses are periodically cured in a solution of saltwater brine and other mold-bearing agents which may include beer, wine, brandy and spices, making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria Brevibacterium linens (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") which impart pungent odors and distinctive flavors. Washed-rind cheeses can be soft (Limburger), semi-hard (Munster), or hard (Appenzeller). The same bacteria can also have some impact on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions, like Camembert.
Stilton from England.

So-called blue cheese is created by inoculating a cheese with Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum. This is done while the cheese is still in the form of loosely pressed curds, and may be further enhanced by piercing a ripening block of cheese with skewers in an atmosphere in which the mold is prevalent. The mold grows within the cheese as it ages. These cheeses have distinct blue veins which gives them their name, and, often, assertive flavors. The molds may range from pale green to dark blue, and may be accompanied by white and crusty brown molds. Their texture can be soft or firm. Some of the most renowned cheeses are of this type, each with its own distinctive color, flavor, texture and smell. They include Roquefort, Gorgonzola, and Stilton.
Processed cheese
Processed cheeses

Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives, and food coloring. It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced, in a number of varieties. It is also available in spraycans.
Eating and cooking
Zigerbrüt, cheese grated onto bread through a mill, from the Kanton Glarus in Switzerland.

At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter, and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. For improvements in flavor and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating. If the cheese is further warmed, to 26–32 °C (79–90 °F), the fats will begin to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.[15]

Above room temperatures, most hard cheeses melt. Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel-like protein matrix that is broken down by heat. When enough protein bonds are broken, the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. Soft, high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55 °C (131 °F), while hard, low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82 °C (180 °F).[16] Acid-set cheeses, including halloumi, paneer, some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh goat cheese, have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures. When cooked, these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates.

Some cheeses, like raclette, melt smoothly; many tend to become stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats. Many of these can be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch. Fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothly melted cheese dish.[17] Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind.

As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).
Health and nutrition

In general, cheese supplies a great deal of calcium, protein, phosphorus and fat. A 30-gram (1.1 oz) serving of Cheddar cheese contains about 7 grams (0.25 oz) of protein and 200 milligrams of calcium. Nutritionally, cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (7.1 oz) of milk to provide that much protein, and 150 grams (5.3 oz) to equal the calcium.[18]

Cheese potentially shares other nutritional properties of milk. The Center for Science in the Public Interest describes cheese as America's number one source of saturated fat, adding that the average American ate 30 lb (14 kg) of cheese in the year 2000, up from 11 lb (5 kg) in 1970.[19] Their recommendation is to limit full-fat cheese consumption to 2 oz (57 g) a week. Whether cheese's highly saturated fat actually leads to an increased risk of heart disease is called into question when considering France and Greece, which lead the world in cheese eating (more than 14 oz/400 g a week per person, or over 45 lb/20 kg a year) yet have relatively low rates of heart disease.[20] This seeming discrepancy is called the French Paradox; the higher rates of consumption of red wine in these countries is often invoked as at least a partial explanation.

Some studies claim that cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss and American cheeses can help to prevent tooth decay.[21][22] Several mechanisms for this protection have been proposed:

* The calcium, protein, and phosphorus in cheese may act to protect tooth enamel.
* Cheese increases saliva flow, washing away acids and sugars.
* Cheese may have an antibacterial effect in the mouth.[citation needed]

Effect on sleep

A study by the British Cheese Board in 2005 to determine the effect of cheese upon sleep and dreaming discovered that, contrary to the idea that cheese commonly causes nightmares, the effect of cheese upon sleep was positive. The majority of the two hundred people tested over a fortnight claimed beneficial results from consuming cheeses before going to bed, the cheese promoting good sleep. Six cheeses were tested and the findings were that the dreams produced were specific to the type of cheese. Although the apparent effects were in some cases described as colorful and vivid, or cryptic, none of the cheeses tested were found to induce nightmares. However, the six cheeses were all British. The results might be entirely different if a wider range of cheeses were tested.[23] Cheese contains tryptophan, an amino acid that has been found to relieve stress and induce sleep.[24]

Like other dairy products, cheese contains casein, a substance that when digested by humans breaks down into several chemicals, including casomorphine, an opioid peptide. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that autism can be caused or aggravated by opioid peptides.[25] Based on this hypothesis, diets that eliminate cheese and other dairy products are widely promoted.[citation needed] Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, so the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations.[26]

Cheese is often avoided by those who are lactose intolerant, but ripened cheeses like Cheddar contain only about 5% of the lactose found in whole milk, and aged cheeses contain almost none.[27] Nevertheless, people with severe lactose intolerance should avoid eating dairy cheese. As a natural product, the same kind of cheese may contain different amounts of lactose on different occasions, causing unexpected painful reactions. As an alternative, also for vegans, there is already a wide range of different soy cheese kinds available. Some people suffer reactions to amines found in cheese, particularly histamine and tyramine. Some aged cheeses contain significant concentrations of these amines, which can trigger symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction: headaches, rashes, and blood pressure elevations.

A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the risks of raw-milk cheeses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious diseases including listeriosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis and tuberculosis".[28] It is U.S. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses (including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days. Australia has a wide ban on raw-milk cheeses as well, though in recent years exceptions have been made for Swiss Gruyère, Emmental and Sbrinz, and for French Roquefort.[29] There is a trend for cheeses to be pasteurized even when not required by law.

Compulsory pasteurization is controversial. Pasteurization does change the flavor of cheeses, and unpasteurized cheeses are often considered to have better flavor, so there are reasons not to pasteurize all cheeses. Some say that health concerns are overstated, pointing out that milk pasteurization does not ensure cheese safety.[30] This is supported by statistics showing that in some European countries where young raw-milk cheeses may legally be sold, most cheese-related food poisoning incidents were traced to pasteurized cheeses.[citation needed]

Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses, due to the listeria risk, which can cause miscarriage or harm to the fetus during birth.[31]
World production and consumption
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Worldwide, cheese is a major agricultural product. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, over 18 million metric tons of cheese were produced worldwide in 2004. This is about three kilos for each person on Earth. The largest producer of cheese is the United States, accounting for 30% of world production, followed by Germany and France.
Top cheese producers
(1,000 metric tons)[32]
United States 4,275 (2006)
Germany 1,927 (2008)
France 1,884 (2008)
Italy 1,149 (2008)
Netherlands 732 (2008)
Poland 594 (2008)
Brazil 495 (2006)
Egypt 462 (2006)
Argentina 425 (2006)
Australia 395 (2006)

The biggest exporter of cheese, by monetary value, is France; the second, Germany (although it is first by quantity). Among the top ten exporters, only Ireland, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Australia have a cheese production that is mainly export oriented: respectively 95%, 90%, 72%, and 65% of their cheese production is exported.[33] Only 30% of French production, the world's largest exporter, is exported. The United States, the biggest world producer of cheese, is a marginal exporter, as most of its production is for the domestic market.
Top cheese exporters (Whole Cow Milk only) - 2004
(value in '000 US $)[34]
France 2,658,441
Germany 2,416,973
Netherlands 2,099,353
Italy 1,253,580
Denmark 1,122,761
Australia 643,575
New Zealand 631,963
Belgium 567,590
Ireland 445,240
United Kingdom 374,156

Germany is the largest importer of cheese. The UK and Italy are the second- and third-largest importers.[35]
Top cheese consumers - 2003
(kilograms per person per year)[36]
Greece 27.3
France 24.0
Italy 22.9
Switzerland 20.6
Germany 20.2
Netherlands 19.9
Austria 19.5
Sweden 17.9

Greece is the world's largest (per capita) consumer of cheese, with 27.3 kg eaten by the average Greek. (Feta accounts for three-quarters of this consumption.) France is the second biggest consumer of cheese, with 24 kg by inhabitant. Emmental (used mainly as a cooking ingredient) and Camembert are the most common cheeses in France[37] Italy is the third biggest consumer by person with 22.9 kg. In the U.S., the consumption of cheese is quickly increasing and has nearly tripled between 1970 and 2003. The consumption per person has reached, in 2003, 14.1 kg (31 lb). Mozzarella is America's favorite cheese and accounts for nearly a third of its consumption, mainly because it is one of the main ingredients of pizza.[38]
Cultural attitudes
A cheese merchant in a French market
A traditional Polish sheep's cheese market in Zakopane, Poland.

Although cheese is a vital source of nutrition in many regions of the world, and is extensively consumed in others, its use is not universal. Cheese is rarely found in East Asian dishes, as lactose intolerance is relatively common in that part of the world and hence dairy products are rare. However, East Asian sentiment against cheese is not universal; cheese made from yaks' (chhurpi) or mares' milk is common on the Asian steppes; the national dish of Bhutan, ema datsi, is made from homemade cheese and hot peppers and cheese such as Rushan and Rubing in Yunnan, China is produced by several ethnic minority groups by either using goat's milk in the case of rubing or cow's milk in the case of rushan. Cheese consumption is increasing in China, with annual sales more than doubling from 1996 to 2003 (to a still small 30 million U.S. dollars a year).[39] Certain kinds of Chinese preserved bean curd are sometimes misleadingly referred to in English as "Chinese cheese", because of their texture and strong flavor.

Strict followers of the dietary laws of Islam and Judaism must avoid cheeses made with rennet from animals not slaughtered in a manner adhering to halal or kosher laws.[40] Both faiths allow cheese made with vegetable-based rennet or with rennet made from animals that were processed in a halal or kosher manner. Many less-orthodox Jews also believe that rennet undergoes enough processing to change its nature entirely, and do not consider it to ever violate kosher law. (See Cheese and kashrut.) As cheese is a dairy food under kosher rules it cannot be eaten in the same meal with any meat.

Rennet derived from animal slaughter, and thus cheese made with animal-derived rennet, is not vegetarian. Most widely available vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei. Vegans and other dairy-avoiding vegetarians do not eat real cheese at all, but some vegetable-based cheese substitutes (usually soy-and almond-based) are available.

Even in cultures with long cheese traditions, it is not unusual to find people who perceive cheese - especially pungent-smelling or mold-bearing varieties such as Limburger or Roquefort - as unpalatable. Food-science writer Harold McGee proposes that cheese is such an acquired taste because it is produced through a process of controlled spoilage and many of the odor and flavor molecules in an aged cheese are the same found in rotten foods. He notes, "An aversion to the odor of decay has the obvious biological value of steering us away from possible food poisoning, so it is no wonder that an animal food that gives off whiffs of shoes and soil and the stable takes some getting used to."[41]

Collecting cheese labels is called "tyrosemiophilia".[42]
See also

* List of cheeses
* Dutch cheese markets

Notes and references

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1. ^ Fankhauser, David B. (2007). "Fankhauser's Cheese Page". http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Cheese/CHEESE.HTML. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
2. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. pp. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
3. ^ "The History Of Cheese: From An Ancient Nomad’s Horseback To Today’s Luxury Cheese Cart". The Nibble. Lifestyle Direct, Inc.. http://www.thenibble.com/REVIEWS/main/cheese/cheese2/history.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
4. ^ Jenny Ridgwell, Judy Ridgway, Food around the World, (1986) Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-832728-5
5. ^ Vicki Reich, Cheese January 2002 Newsletter
6. ^ History of Cheese. [1] accessed 2007/06/10
7. ^ "British Cheese homepage". British Cheese Board. 2007. http://www.britishcheese.com/. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
8. ^ Quoted in Newsweek, October 1, 1962 according to The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-07194-9 p 345). Numbers besides 246 are often cited in very similar quotes; whether these are misquotes or whether de Gaulle repeated the same quote with different numbers is unclear.
9. ^ Smith, John H. (1995). Cheesemaking in Scotland - A History. The Scottish Dairy Association. ISBN 0-9525323-0-1. . Full text (Archived link), Chapter with cheese timetable (Archived link).
10. ^ Cecil Adams (1999). "Straight Dope: How did the moon=green cheese myth start?". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
11. ^ Anon (1st April 2006). "Hubble Resolves Expiration Date For Green Cheese Moon". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap060401.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
12. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. p 54. "In the United States, the market for process cheese [...] is now larger than the market for 'natural' cheese, which itself is almost exclusively factory-made."
13. ^ Barbara Ensrud, (1981) The Pocket Guide to Cheese, Lansdowne Press/Quarto Marketing Ltd., ISBN 0-7018-1483-7
14. ^ "Moose milk makes for unusual cheese". The Globe and Mail. 26 June 2004. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/TPStory/LAC/20040626/MOOSE26/TPEntertainment/Style. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
15. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 63)
16. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 64)
17. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 66)
18. ^ Nutritional data from CNN Interactive. Retrieved October 20, 2004.
19. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (2001). "Don't Say Cheese". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
20. ^ McGee, p 67. McGee supports both this contention and that more food poisonings in Europe are caused by pasteurized cheeses than raw-milk.
21. ^ National Dairy Council. "Specific Health Benefits of Cheese." Retrieved October 15, 2005.
22. ^ The Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 264 No 7078 p48 January 8, 2000 Clinical.
23. ^ Sleep Study, 2005
24. ^ Cheese Facts, I Love Cheese, 2006. [2].
25. ^ Reichelt KL, Knivsberg A-M, Lind G, Nødland M (1991). "Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism". Brain Dysfunct 4: 308–19.
26. ^ Christison GW, Ivany K (2006). "Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff?". J Dev Behav Pediatr 27 (2 Suppl 2): S162–71. doi:10.1097/00004703-200604002-00015. PMID 16685183.
27. ^ Lactose Intolerance FAQs from the American Dairy Association, Retrieved October 15, 2005.
28. ^ FDA Warns About Soft Cheese Health Risk". Consumer Affairs. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
29. ^ Chris Mercer (2005). "Australia lifts Roquefort cheese safety ban". Retrieved October 22, 2005.
30. ^ Janet Fletcher. "The Myths about Raw-Milk Cheese". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
31. ^ Listeria and Pregnancy. Retrieved February 28, 2006.
32. ^ United States Department of Agriculture for the US and non European countries in 2006 [3]and Eurostat for European countries in 2008 [4]
33. ^ Sources: FAO and Eurostat.
34. ^ UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[5]
35. ^ Source FAO
36. ^ CNIEL
37. ^ Cidilait, Le fromage
38. ^ USDA
39. ^ Rebecca Buckman (2003). "Let Them Eat Cheese". Far Eastern Economic Review 166 n. 49: 41. Full text.
40. ^ Toronto Public Health. Frequently Asked Questions about Halal Foods. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
41. ^ McGee p 58, "Why Some People Can't Stand Cheese"
42. ^ Cheese label.


* Ensrud, Barbara (1981). The Pocket Guide to Cheese. Sydney: Lansdowne Press. ISBN 0-7018-1483-7.
* Jenkins, Steven (1996). Cheese Primer. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89480-762-5.
* McGee, Harold (2004). "Cheese". On Food and Cooking (Revised ed.). Scribner. pp. 51–63. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
* Mellgren, James (2003). "2003 Specialty Cheese Manual, Part II: Knowing the Family of Cheese". http://www.gourmetretailer.com/gourmetretailer/magazine/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1911696. Retrieved 2005-10-12.

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* Cheese Making Illustrated — The science behind homemade cheese.
* The Complete Book of Cheese at Project Gutenberg
* Cheese.com — includes an extensive database of different types of cheese.
* Cheese at the Open Directory Project
* Cheese Guide & Terminology — Different classifications of cheese with notes on varieties.
* Fresh Cheeses at The Cook's Thesaurus, page about different kinds of fresh cheeses and how to make them.

The Master...........................The Skasis Pardigm

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 5:44 am

All I read was "A wiki (pronounced..."

How are the test results?

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 3:12 pm

You didn't see the sentence about you, so FAIL

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 6:22 pm

(*Pouting Sigh*)

Imma go find the sentence.


You think I'm that gullible, don't you?

Mallory's a bitch! I love her SO much!

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 6:38 pm


- ramen_soup_VI, Jedi Knight and Superhero
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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 7:34 pm

I have the right to stare at Mallory's perfect, smart-ass breasts and ass.

Because I am not limited by a girlfriend.

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 8:40 pm

You switch too much

I did put a sentence about you in both of these. see if you can find either

The image of the TARDIS has become firmly linked to the show in the public's consciousness. In 1996, the BBC applied for a trademark to use the TARDIS' blue police box design in merchandising associated with Doctor Who.[27] In 1998, the Metropolitan Police filed an objection to the trademark claim; in 2002 the Patent Office ruled in favour of the BBC.[28]

The programme's broad appeal attracts audiences of children and families as well as science fiction fans.[29]

The 21st century revival of the programme has become the centrepiece of BBC One's Saturday schedule, and has "defined the channel".[30] Since its return, Doctor Who has consistently received high ratings, both in number of viewers and as measured by the Appreciation Index.[31] In 2007, Caitlin Moran, television reviewer for The Times, wrote that Doctor Who is "quintessential to being British".[4] The film director Steven Spielberg has commented that "the world would be a poorer place without Doctor Who."[32]
[edit] Episodes
Further information: List of Doctor Who serials

Doctor Who originally ran for 26 series on BBC One, from 23 November 1963 until 6 December 1989. During the original run, each weekly episode formed part of a story (or "serial")—usually of four to six parts in earlier years and three to four in later years. Notable exceptions were the epic The Daleks' Master Plan, which aired in twelve episodes (plus an earlier one-episode teaser, "Mission to the Unknown", featuring none of the regular cast),[33] almost an entire series of 7-episode serials (series 7), the 10-episode serial The War Games,[34] and The Trial of a Time Lord, which ran for 14 episodes (albeit divided into three production codes and four narrative segments) during Series 23.[35] Occasionally serials were loosely connected by a storyline, such as Series 16's quest for The Key to Time or Series 18's journey through E-Space and the theme of entropy.

The programme was intended to be educational and for family viewing on the early Saturday evening schedule. Initially, it alternated stories set in the past, which taught younger audience members about history, with stories set either in the future or in outer space to teach them about science. This was also reflected in the Doctor's original companions, one of whom was a science teacher and another a history teacher.

However, science fiction stories came to dominate the programme and the "historicals", which were not popular with the production team, were dropped after The Highlanders (1967). While the show continued to use historical settings, they were generally used as a backdrop for science fiction tales, with one exception: Black Orchid set in 1920s England.[36]

The early stories were serial-like in nature, with the narrative of one story flowing into the next, and each episode having its own title, although produced as distinct stories with their own production codes. Following The Gunfighters (1966), however, each serial was given its own title, with the individual parts simply being assigned episode numbers. What to name these earlier stories is often a subject of fan debate.

Writers during the original run included Terry Nation, Henry Lincoln, Douglas Adams, Robert Holmes, Terrance Dicks, Dennis Spooner, Eric Saward, Malcolm Hulke, Christopher H. Bidmead, Stephen Gallagher, Brian Hayles, Robert Sloman, Chris Boucher, Peter Grimwade, Marc Platt and Ben Aaronovitch.

The serial format changed for the 2005 revival, with each series consisting of thirteen 45-minute, self-contained episodes (60 minutes with adverts, on overseas commercial channels), and an extended episode broadcast on Christmas Day. Each series includes several standalone and multi-part stories, linked with a loose story arc that resolves in the series finale. As in the early "classic" era, each episode—whether standalone or part of a larger story—has its own title.

756 Doctor Who installments have been televised since 1963, ranging between 25-minute episodes (the most common format), 45-minute episodes (for Resurrection of the Daleks in the 1984 series, a single season in 1985, and the revival), two feature-length productions (1983's "The Five Doctors" and the 1996 television film), three 60-minute Christmas specials and a 72 minute Christmas Special in 2007. Two mini-episodes, running about eight minutes each, were also produced for the 2005 and 2007 Children in Need charity appeals, while another mini episode was produced in 2008 for a Doctor Who-themed edition of The Proms.

The revived series was filmed in PAL 576i DigiBeta wide-screen format and then filmised to give a 25p image in post-production using a Snell & Wilcox Alchemist Platinum. Starting from the 2009 special "Planet of the Dead", the series is filmed in 1080i for HDTV,[37] and broadcast simultaneously on BBC One and BBC HD.
[edit] Missing episodes
Main article: Doctor Who missing episodes

Between about 1964 and 1974, large amounts of older material stored in the BBC's various video tape and film libraries were either destroyed[38] or simply wiped. This included many old episodes of Doctor Who, mostly stories featuring the first three Doctors—William Hartnell, Patrick Troughton, and Jon Pertwee. Following consolidations and recoveries the archives are complete from the programme's move to colour television (starting from Jon Pertwee's time as the Doctor), although a few Pertwee episodes have required substantial restoration; a handful have been recovered only as black and white films, and several survive in colour only as NTSC copies recovered from North America (a few of which are domestic, off-air Betamax tape recordings, not transmission quality). In all, 108 of 253 episodes produced during the first six years (most notably series 3, 4, & 5) of the programme are not held in the BBC's archives. It has been reported that in 1972 almost all episodes then made were known to exist at the BBC,[39] whilst by 1978 the practice of wiping tapes had ended.[40]

Some episodes have been returned to the BBC from the archives of other countries who bought copies for broadcast, or by private individuals who got them by various means. Early colour videotape recordings made off-air by fans have also been retrieved, as well as excerpts filmed from the television screen onto 8 mm cine film and clips that were shown on other programmes. Audio versions of all of the lost episodes exist from home viewers who made tape recordings of the show.

In addition to these, there are off-screen photographs made by photographer John Cura, who was hired by various production personnel to document many of their programmes during the 1950s and 1960s, including Doctor Who. These have been used in fan reconstructions of the serials. These amateur reconstructions have been tolerated by the BBC, provided they are not sold for profit and are distributed as low quality VHS copies.

One of the most sought-after lost episodes is Part Four of the last William Hartnell serial, The Tenth Planet (1966), which ends with the First Doctor transforming into the Second. The only portion of this in existence, barring a few poor quality silent 8 mm clips, is the few seconds of the regeneration scene, as it was shown on the children's magazine show Blue Peter. With the approval of the BBC, efforts are now under way to restore as many of the episodes as possible from the extant material. Starting in the early 1990s, the BBC began to release audio recordings of missing serials on cassette and compact disc, with linking narration provided by former series actors. "Official" reconstructions have also been released by the BBC on VHS, on MP3 CD-ROM and as a special feature on a DVD. The BBC, in conjunction with animation studio Cosgrove Hall has reconstructed the missing Episodes 1 and 4 of The Invasion (1968) in animated form, using remastered audio tracks and the comprehensive stage notes for the original filming, for the serial's DVD release in November 2006. Although no similar reconstructions have been announced as of 2007[update], Cosgrove Hall has expressed an interest in animating more lost episodes in the future.[41]

In April 2006, Blue Peter launched a challenge to find these missing episodes with the promise of a full scale Dalek model.[42]
[edit] Characters
[edit] The Doctor
Main article: Doctor (Doctor Who)
The eleven faces of the Doctor

(Top) L-R: William Hartnell, Patrick Troughton, Jon Pertwee, Tom Baker
(Middle) L-R: Peter Davison, Colin Baker, Sylvester McCoy, Paul McGann
(Bottom) L-R: Christopher Eccleston, David Tennant, Matt Smith

The character of the Doctor was initially shrouded in mystery. All that was known about him in the programme's early days was that he was an eccentric alien traveller of great intelligence who battled injustice while exploring time and space in an unreliable old time machine called the TARDIS, an acronym for Time And Relative Dimension(s) In Space. As it appears much larger on the inside than on the outside, the TARDIS has been described by the Third Doctor as "dimensionally transcendental"[43]. Because of a malfunction of its Chameleon Circuit, it is stuck in the shape of a 1950s-style British police box.

However, not only did the initially irascible and slightly sinister Doctor quickly mellow into a more compassionate figure, it was eventually revealed that he had been on the run from his own people, the Time Lords of the planet Gallifrey.

As a Time Lord, the Doctor has the ability to regenerate his body when near death. Introduced into the storyline as a way of continuing the series when the writers were faced with the departure of lead actor William Hartnell in 1966, it has continued to be a major element of the series, allowing for the recasting of the lead actor when the need arises. The serial The Deadly Assassin established that a Time Lord can regenerate twelve times, for a total of thirteen incarnations (although at least one Time Lord, the Master, has managed to circumvent this) To date, the Doctor has gone through this process and its resulting after-effects on ten occasions, with each of his incarnations having his own quirks and abilities but otherwise sharing the memories and experience of the previous incarnations.
The Doctor Played by Duration
First Doctor William Hartnell 1963–1966[44]
Second Doctor Patrick Troughton 1966–1969[44]
Third Doctor Jon Pertwee 1970–1974[44]
Fourth Doctor Tom Baker 1974–1981[44]
Fifth Doctor Peter Davison 1981–1984[44]
Sixth Doctor Colin Baker 1984–1986
Seventh Doctor Sylvester McCoy 1987–1989, 1996[45]
Eighth Doctor Paul McGann 1996
Ninth Doctor Christopher Eccleston 2005
Tenth Doctor David Tennant 2005–2010[7]
Eleventh Doctor Matt Smith 2010–[46]

There have been instances of actors returning at later dates to reprise the role of their specific doctor, despite this action often going against the Time Lord's rules about how to travel in time and space safely. In 1973's The Three Doctors, William Hartnell and Patrick Troughton returned alongside Jon Pertwee. For 1983's The Five Doctors, Troughton and Pertwee returned to star with Peter Davison, and Tom Baker appeared in previously unseen footage from the uncompleted Shada episode. Patrick Troughton again returned in 1985's The Two Doctors with Colin Baker. Finally, Peter Davison returned in 2007's Children in Need short "Time Crash" alongside David Tennant.

There has also been an instance of another actor replacing the original actor mid-series. This has occurred on two occasions. In The Five Doctors, Richard Hurndall played the First Doctor due to William Hartnell's death. And in Time and the Rani, Sylvester McCoy briefly played the Sixth Doctor during the regeneration sequence, with McCoy carrying on as the Seventh. For more information, see the list of actors who have played the Doctor.

Despite these shifts in personality, the Doctor remains an intensely curious and highly moral adventurer who would rather solve problems with his wits than by using violence.

Throughout the programme's long history there have been controversial revelations about the Doctor. In The Brain of Morbius (1976), it was hinted that the First Doctor may not have been the first incarnation (although the other faces depicted may have been incarnations of the Time Lord Morbius). In subsequent stories, the First Doctor has always been shown as the earliest incarnation of the Doctor.

During the Seventh Doctor's era it was hinted that the Doctor was more than just an ordinary Time Lord. In the 1996 television movie, he describes himself as being "half human".[47] The revelation has become controversial amongst series fans, given that there have been no references to the concept during the original or revived television series.[48]

The 2005 series reveals that the Ninth Doctor thought he was the last surviving Time Lord, and that his home planet had been destroyed. The very first episode, An Unearthly Child, shows that the Doctor has a granddaughter, Susan Foreman; in "The Empty Child" (2005), in response to Constantine's statement that "before this war began, I was a father and a grandfather. Now I am neither", the Doctor remarks, "Yeah, I know the feeling"; and in both "Fear Her" (2006) and "The Doctor's Daughter" (2008), he states that he had, in the past, been a father. Also in the latter, his cells are used to produce a daughter (played by Georgia Moffett, the real-life daughter of Fifth Doctor actor Peter Davison) who is subsequently named Jenny by Donna as a result of his describing her as "a generated anomaly".
[edit] Companions
Main article: Companion (Doctor Who)

The Doctor almost always shares his adventures with up to three companions, and since 1963 more than 35 actors have been featured in these roles. The First Doctor's original companions were his granddaughter Susan Foreman (Carole Ann Ford) and school teachers Barbara Wright (Jacqueline Hill) and Ian Chesterton (William Russell). The only story from the original series in which the Doctor travels alone is The Deadly Assassin.

Dramatically, the companion characters provide a surrogate with whom the audience can identify, and serve to further the story by requesting exposition from the Doctor and manufacturing peril for the Doctor to resolve. The Doctor regularly gains new companions and loses old ones; sometimes they return home or find new causes — or loves — on worlds they have visited. Some have even died during the course of the series.

Although the majority of the Doctor's companions have been young, attractive females, the production team for the 1963–1989 series maintained a long-standing taboo against any overt romantic involvement in the TARDIS. The taboo was controversially broken in the 1996 television film when the Eighth Doctor was shown kissing companion Grace Holloway. The 2005 series played with this idea by having various characters think that the Ninth Doctor and Rose (played by Billie Piper) were a couple, which they vehemently denied (see also "The Doctor and romance"). In "Doomsday" The Doctor says goodbye to Rose and is cut off saying "Rose Tyler..." In "Journey's End" the "new doctor" that grew out of the "biological metacrisis" with Donna Noble whispers what is implied as "I love you," in Rose's ear and tells her he would like to spend his life with her. The idea of a possible involvement was suggested again in "Smith and Jones", when the Tenth Doctor kisses his soon-to-be new companion Martha Jones, although the Doctor insists that the kiss was simply for the purpose of 'genetic transfer'. In "The Unicorn and the Wasp", the Doctor is kissed by Donna Noble to shock him to neutralise a poison in his system, but again, a romantic purpose is unstated.

Previous companions reappeared in the series, usually for anniversary specials. One former companion, Sarah Jane Smith (played by Elisabeth Sladen), together with the robotic dog K-9, appeared in an episode of the 2006 series nearly 13 years after their last appearances in the 30th Anniversary story Dimensions in Time (1993). (Sladen also starred as the character in an independent film spin-off, Downtime, in 1995.) Afterwards, the character was featured in the spin-off series The Sarah Jane Adventures. Sladen once again appeared as Sarah Jane in the final two episodes of the fourth series of the new Doctor Who, with K-9 appearing briefly in the final episode, "Journey's End".

The latest companions of the Doctor included a large ensemble cast ranging from Catherine Tate reprising her role as Donna, Billie Piper as Rose, Noel Clarke as Mickey Smith, Freema Agyeman as Martha Jones, Elisabeth Sladen as Sarah Jane and John Barrowman as Captain Jack, all of whom departed in the episode "Journey's End".[49] Agyeman appeared as Martha Jones in three episodes of the spin-off series Torchwood before returning to Doctor Who halfway through the fourth series.[50][51] Billie Piper briefly reprised her role as Rose Tyler in the fourth series episode "Partners in Crime"and was breifly on an entertainment screen in Midnight and returned to the series from "Turn Left" to "Journey's End".[52] For the 2007 Christmas episode "Voyage of the Damned", the Doctor's companion was Astrid Peth, played by Australian performer Kylie Minogue.

During the 2009 Christmas special The End of Time, the Tenth Doctor went around the universe and/or back in time to visit and say goodbye to many of his former companions, these being Martha Jones, Mickey Smith, Luke Smith, Sarah Jane Smith, Jack Harkness, Alonso Frame (from Voyage of the Damned), Wilfred Mott, and Sylvia Noble. In addition, he went to visit Rose Tyler before they had met, and he witnessed Donna Noble's wedding but was unable to talk to her. Jackie Tyler was also in this sequence, but the Doctor neither saw nor talked to her.

Karen Gillan will play the 11th Doctor's companion,[53] named Amy Pond.[54]

Though not always considered a companion, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart was a recurring character in the original series, making his first appearance alongside the Second Doctor and his final alongside the Seventh. The actor Nicholas Courtney who portrayed the Brigadier had previously also starred as Bret Vyon alongside first Doctor William Hartnell in the 12-part The Daleks' Master Plan, and he appeared on television with every Doctor of the classic series except Colin Baker, but appears with the Sixth Doctor in the charity crossover special Dimensions in Time and in audio adventures from Big Finish Productions. Lethbridge-Stewart, still played by Courtney, appeared in Enemy of the Bane, a two-part episode of The Sarah Jane Adventures spinoff in 2008, more than 40 years after the character was first introduced, making him the longest-serving ongoing character in the franchise beyond the Doctor himself. He and UNIT appeared regularly during the Third Doctor's tenure, and UNIT has continued to appear or be referred to in the revival of the show and its spin-offs.
[edit] Adversaries
See also: List of Doctor Who monsters and aliens and List of Doctor Who villains
The Daleks are perhaps the best-known adversaries faced by the Doctor.

When Sydney Newman commissioned the series, he specifically did not want to perpetuate the cliché of the "bug-eyed monster" of science fiction.[55] However, monsters were a staple of Doctor Who almost from the beginning and were popular with audiences. Notable adversaries of the Doctor from the series' initial 26-year run include the Autons, the Cybermen, the Sontarans, the Sea Devils, the Silurians, the Ice Warriors, the Rani, the Yeti, Davros (the creator of the Daleks), the Master (a Time Lord with a thirst for universal conquest), and, most notably, the Daleks. This continued with the resurrection of the series in 2005.

Russell T. Davies, executive director until 2009, stated that it had always been his intention to bring back classic icons of Doctor Who one step at a time: the Autons and the Daleks in series 1, Cybermen in series 2, the Macra and the Master in series 3, the Sontarans and Davros in series 4. He also stated that he was not finished and would continue reviving villains from the series' past.[56] Since its 2005 return, the series has also introduced new aliens, including the Slitheen, the Ood and the Judoon.
[edit] Daleks
Main article: Dalek

Of all the monsters and villains, the ones that have most secured the series' place in the public's imagination are the Daleks, who first appeared in 1963 and were the series' very first "monster". The Daleks are Kaled mutants in tank-like mechanical armour shells from the planet Skaro. Their chief role in the plot of the series, as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices, is to "Exterminate!" all beings inferior to themselves, even attacking the Time Lords in the often referred to but never shown Time War. Davros, the Daleks' creator, became a recurring villain after he was introduced in Genesis of the Daleks, in which the Time Lords send the Doctor back to destroy the Daleks, avert their creation, or tamper with their genetic structure to make them less warlike. Davros has been played by Michael Wisher (first introduced in Genesis of the Daleks), David Gooderson (Destiny of the Daleks), and Terry Molloy. Davros returned to Doctor Who portrayed by Julian Bleach in the 2008 episodes "The Stolen Earth" and "Journey's End".

The Daleks were created by writer Terry Nation (who intended them as an allegory of the Nazis)[57] and BBC designer Raymond Cusick. The Daleks' début in the programme's second serial, The Daleks (1963–64), caused a tremendous reaction in the viewing figures and the public, putting Doctor Who on the cultural map. A Dalek appeared on a postage stamp celebrating British popular culture in 1999, photographed by Lord Snowdon.
[edit] Cybermen
Main article: Cyberman

Cybermen were originally a wholly organic species of humanoids originating on Earth's twin planet Mondas that began to implant more and more artificial parts into their bodies. This led to the race becoming coldly logical and calculating, with emotions usually only shown when naked aggression was called for. The 2006 series introduced a totally new variation of Cybermen created in a parallel universe by transplanting the brains of humans into powerful metal bodies, sending them orders using a mobile phone network, and inhibiting their emotions with an electronic chip.
[edit] The Master
Main article: Master (Doctor Who)

The Master is a renegade Time Lord, and the Doctor's arch-nemesis. Conceived as "Professor Moriarty to the Doctor's Sherlock Holmes,"[58] the character first appeared in 1971. As with the Doctor, the role has been portrayed by several actors, the first being Roger Delgado who continued in the role until his death in 1973. The Master was briefly played by Peter Pratt and Geoffrey Beevers until Anthony Ainley took over and continued to play the character until Doctor Who's "hiatus" in 1989. The Master returned in the 1996 television movie of Doctor Who, played by Eric Roberts, and in the three-part finale of the 2007 series, portrayed by Derek Jacobi and then John Simm at the conclusion of the episode "Utopia". Simm reprised his role as The Master in the 2009–2010 specials, The End of Time.[59]
[edit] Music
[edit] Theme music
Main article: Doctor Who theme music

Doctor Who theme excerpt
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An excerpt from the classic theme music to Doctor Who
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The original 1963 radiophonic arrangement of the Doctor Who theme is widely regarded as a significant and innovative piece of electronic music, and Doctor Who was the first television series in the world to have a theme entirely realised through electronic means.

The original theme was composed by Ron Grainer and realised by Delia Derbyshire at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, with assistance from Dick Mills. The various parts were built up by creating tape loops of an individually struck piano string and individual test oscillators and filters. The Derbyshire arrangement served, with minor edits, as the theme tune up to the end of Season 17 (1979–80).

A more modern and dynamic arrangement was composed by Peter Howell for Season 18 (1980), which was in turn replaced by Dominic Glynn's arrangement for the episode The Trial of a Time Lord in series 23 (1986). Keff McCulloch provided the new arrangement for the Seventh Doctor's era which lasted from Season 24 (1987) until the series' suspension in 1989. For the return of the series in 2005, Murray Gold provided a new arrangement which featured samples from the 1963 original with further elements added; in the 2005 Christmas episode "The Christmas Invasion", Gold introduced a modified closing credits arrangement that was used up until the conclusion of the 2007 series.

A new arrangement of the theme, once again by Gold, was introduced in the 2007 Christmas special episode, "Voyage of the Damned". Gold, who has announced his return as composer for the next series, is currently working on a new version of the theme.[60]

Versions of the "Doctor Who Theme" have also been released in a pop music venue over the years. In the early 1970s, Jon Pertwee, who had played the Third Doctor, recorded a version of the Doctor Who theme with spoken lyrics, titled, "Who Is the Doctor". In 1988 the band The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu (later known as The KLF) released the single "Doctorin' the Tardis" under the name The Timelords, which reached No. 1 in the UK and No. 2 in Australia; this version incorporated several other songs, including "Rock and Roll Part 2" by Gary Glitter (who recorded vocals for some of the CD-single remix versions of "Doctorin' the Tardis").[61] Others who have covered or reinterpreted the theme include Orbital,[61] Pink Floyd,[61] the Australian string ensemble Fourplay, New Zealand punk band Blam Blam Blam, The Pogues, and the comedians Bill Bailey and Mitch Benn, and it and obsessive fans were satirised on The Chaser's War on Everything. A reggae/ska version of the Doctor Who theme tune was released on the Explosion label in 1969 by Bongo Herman and Les. The theme tune has also appeared on many compilation CDs and has made its way into mobile phone ring tones. Fans have also produced and distributed their own remixes of the theme.
[edit] Incidental music
Main article: List of music featured on Doctor Who

Most of the innovative incidental music for Doctor Who has been specially commissioned from freelance composers, although in the early years some episodes also used stock music, as well as occasional excerpts from original recordings or cover versions of songs by popular music acts such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys. Since its 2005 return, the series has featured occasional use of excerpts of pop music from the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s.

The incidental music for the first Doctor Who adventure, An Unearthly Child, was written by Norman Kay. Many of the stories of the William Hartnell period were scored by electronic music pioneer Tristram Cary, whose Doctor Who credits include The Daleks, Marco Polo, The Daleks' Master Plan, The Gunfighters and The Mutants. Other composers in this early period included Richard Rodney Bennett, Carey Blyton and Geoffrey Burgon.

The most frequent musical contributor during the first fifteen years was Dudley Simpson, who is also well known for his theme and incidental music for Blake's 7, and for his haunting theme music and score for the original 1970s version of The Tomorrow People. Simpson's first Doctor Who score was Planet of Giants (1964) and he went on to write music for many adventures of the 1960s and 1970s, including most of the stories of the Jon Pertwee / Tom Baker periods, ending with The Horns of Nimon (1979). He also made a cameo appearance in The Talons of Weng-Chiang (as a Music hall conductor).

Beginning with The Leisure Hive (1980), the task of creating incidental music was assigned to the Radiophonic Workshop. Paddy Kingsland and Peter Howell contributed many scores in this period and other contributors included Roger Limb, Malcolm Clarke and Jonathan Gibbs.

The Radiophonic Workshop was dropped after the The Trial of a Time Lord series, and Keff McCulloch took over as the series' main composer, with Dominic Glynn and Mark Ayres also contributing scores.

All the incidental music for the 2005 revived series has been composed by Murray Gold and Ben Foster and has been performed by the BBC National Orchestra of Wales from the 2005 Christmas episode The Christmas Invasion onwards. A concert featuring the orchestra performing music from the first two series took place on 19 November 2006 to raise money for Children in Need. David Tennant hosted the event, introducing the different sections of the concert. Murray Gold and Russell T Davies answered questions during the interval and Daleks and Cybermen menaced the audience whilst music from their stories was played. The concert aired on BBCi on Christmas Day 2006. A Doctor Who Prom was celebrated on 27 July 2008 in the Royal Albert Hall as part of the annual BBC Proms. The BBC Philharmonic and the London Philharmonic Choir performed Murray Gold's compositions for the series, conducted by Ben Foster, as well as a selection of classics based around the theme of space and time. The event was presented by Freema Agyeman and guest-presented by various other stars of the show with numerous monsters participating in the proceedings. It also featured the specially filmed mini-episode Music of the Spheres, written by Russell T Davies and starring David Tennant.[62]

Three soundtrack releases since 2005 have been released – the first featured tracks from the first two series,[63] while the second and third featured music from the third and fourth series respectively. See List of Doctor Who music releases for other soundtrack releases.
[edit] Special sound

Doctor Who's science-fiction themes and settings meant that many sound effects had to be specially created for the series, although some common sound effects (such as crowds, horses and jungle noises) were sourced from stock recordings. Because Doctor Who began several years before the advent of the first mass-produced synthesisers, much of the equipment used to create electronic sound effects in the early days was custom-built by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop and until the early 1970s audio effects were produced using a combination of electronic and radiophonic techniques.

Almost all of the original sound effects and audio backgrounds during the 1960s were overseen by the Radiophonic Workshop's Brian Hodgson, who worked on Doctor Who from its inception until the middle of Jon Pertwee's tenure in the early 1970s, when he was succeeded by Dick Mills. Hodgson created hundreds of pieces of "special sound" ranging from ray-gun blasts to dinosaurs, but without doubt his best known sound effects are the sound of the TARDIS as it de-materialises and re-appears, and the voices of the Daleks.

The basic audio source Hodgson used for the TARDIS effect was the sound of his house keys being scraped up and down along the strings of an old gutted piano, and played backwards. The famous Dalek voice effect was obtained by passing the actors' voices through a device called a ring modulator, and it was further enhanced by exploiting the distortion inherent in the microphones and amplifiers then in use. However, the precise sonic character of the Daleks' voices varied somewhat over time because the original frequency settings used on the ring modulator were never noted down.
[edit] Viewership
[edit] UK
Main article: Doctor Who fandom
The image of the TARDIS is iconic in British popular culture.

Premiering the day after the assassination of President Kennedy, the first episode of Doctor Who was repeated with the second episode the following week. Doctor Who has always appeared initially on the BBC's mainstream BBC One channel, where it is regarded as a family show, drawing audiences of many millions of viewers; episodes are now repeated on BBC Three. The programme's popularity has waxed and waned over the decades, with three notable periods of high ratings.[64] The first of these was the "Dalekmania" period (circa 1964–1965), when the popularity of the Daleks regularly brought Doctor Who ratings of between 9 and 14 million, even for stories which did not feature them.[64][65] The second was the late 1970s, when Tom Baker occasionally drew audiences of over 12 million.[64] During the ITV network strike of 1979, viewership peaked at 16 million. Figures remained respectable into the 1980s, but fell noticeably after the programme's 23rd series was postponed in 1985 and the show was off the air for 18 months. Its late 1980s performance of three to five million viewers was seen as poor at the time and was, according to the BBC Board of Control, a leading cause of the programme's 1989 suspension. Some fans considered this disingenuous, since the programme was scheduled against the soap opera Coronation Street, the most popular show at the time. After the series' revival in 2005 (the third noteworthy period of high ratings), it has consistently had high viewership levels for the evening on which the episode is broadcast.[64] The BBC One broadcast of "Rose", the first episode of the 2005 revival, drew an average audience of 10.81 million, third highest for BBC One that week and seventh across all channels. The largest audience for an episode of Doctor Who since its revival was achieved by the 2007 Christmas special "Voyage Of The Damned", which received 13.31 million viewers, a feat which also made it the second most watched show of the year. The highest weekly chart ranking is first, for the 2008 series finale "Journey's End", which was watched by 10.57 million viewers.[64][66] The current revival also garners the highest audience Appreciation Index of any non-soap drama on television.[67] Its continued viewership has resulted in becoming part of the UK's popular culture.
[edit] International

The series also has a fan base in the United States, where it was shown in syndication from the 1970s to the 1990s, particularly on PBS stations (see Doctor Who in North America). New Zealand was the first country outside the UK to screen Doctor Who beginning in September 1964, and continued to screen the series for many years, including the new series from 2005. In Canada, the series debuted in January 1965, but the CBC only aired the first twenty-six episodes. TVOntario picked up the show in 1976 beginning with The Three Doctors and aired it through to series 24 in 1991. TVO's schedule ran several years behind the BBC's throughout this period. From 1979 to 1981, TVO airings were bookended by science-fiction writer Judith Merril who would introduce the episode and then, after the episode concluded, try to place it in an educational context in keeping with TVO's status as an educational channel. The airing of The Talons of Weng-Chiang resulted in controversy for TVOntario as a result of accusations that the story was racist. Consequently the story was not rebroadcast. CBC began showing the series again in 2005. The series moved to the Canadian cable channel Space in 2009.

A fan base exists in Australia, where it has been exclusively first run on ABC1, and periodically repeated - including screening all available episodes for the show's 40th anniversary in 2003. Repeats have also been shown on the subscription television channel UK.TV. The ABC also broadcasts the first run of the revived series, on ABC1, with repeats on ABC2. UK.TV also shows repeats of the revived series. The ABC also provided partial funding for the 20th anniversary special episode "The Five Doctors".

Only four episodes have ever had their premiere showings on channels other than BBC One. The 1983 twentieth anniversary special "The Five Doctors" had its début on 23 November (the actual date of the anniversary) on various PBS members two days prior to its BBC One broadcast. The 1988 story Silver Nemesis was broadcast with all three episodes edited together in compilation form on TVNZ in New Zealand in November, after the first episode had been shown in the UK but before the final two instalments had aired there. Finally, the 1996 television film premièred on 12 May 1996 on CITV in Edmonton, Canada, fifteen days before the BBC One showing, and two days before it aired on Fox in the US.

A wide selection of serials is available from BBC Video on VHS and DVD, on sale in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States. Every fully extant serial has been released on VHS, and BBC Worldwide continues to regularly release serials on DVD. The 2005 series is also available in its entirety on UMD for the PlayStation Portable.

As of July 2008[update], the revived series has been, or is currently, broadcast weekly in 42 countries,[68] including the following:

* Argentina (People+Arts)
* Australia (ABC1)
* Austria (Pro 7)
* Belgium (Één)
* Brazil (People+Arts)
* Canada (Space (in English) and Ztélé (in French))
* Croatia (Croatian Radiotelevision)
* Denmark (Danmarks Radio)
* Finland (TV2)
* France (France 4)
* Germany (Pro 7 and Sci Fi Channel)
* Hong Kong (ATV World and BBC Entertainment)
* Hungary (RTL Klub-owned COOL TV)
* Iceland (RÚV)
* Ireland (TV3)
* Israel (yes stars Action, AXN and BBC Prime)
* Italy (Jimmy)
* Japan (NHK BS2)
* Malaysia (Astro Network)
* The Netherlands (NED 3)
* New Zealand (Prime TV)
* Norway (NRK)
* Poland (TVP1)
* Portugal (People+Arts, SIC Radical)
* Romania (TVR)
* Russia (STS TV)
* Serbia (B92), Slovenia (RTV Slovenia)
* Spain (People+Arts [first run], Sci Fi Channel [second run, new dubbing])

* Catalonia (TV3 and BBC Entertainment)

* Latin America (People+Arts)
* South Korea (KBS2 (dubbed in Korean) and Fox (subtitled in Korean))
* Sweden (SVT)
* Switzerland (Pro 7)
* Thailand (Channel 7)
* Turkey (Cine5 and CNBC-e)
* Ukraine (ICTV in 2008 and QTV in 2010)
* The United States (Syfy) [first run], public television [second run] and BBC America [second run]
* Greece (Skai TV)
* Style UK (part of Showtime Arabia) for the Middle East, North Africa and the Levant territories.

Doctor Who is one of the five top grossing titles for BBC Worldwide, the BBC's commercial arm.[69] BBC Worldwide CEO John Smith has said that Doctor Who is one of a small number of "Superbrands" which Worldwide will promote heavily.[70]

A special logo has been designed for the Japanese broadcast with the katakana "ドクター・フー" (romanised as Dokutaa Fuu).[71] The series has apparently "mystified" viewers in Japan where it has been broadcast in a late evening time slot, leading to some not realising it is a family show.[72]

The series one episodes aired in Canada a couple of weeks after their UK broadcast, a situation made possible by the 2004–05 NHL lockout which left vast gaps in CBC's schedule. For the Canadian broadcast, Christopher Eccleston recorded special video introductions for each episode (including a trivia question as part of a viewer contest) and excerpts from the Doctor Who Confidential documentary were played over the closing credits; for the broadcast of "The Christmas Invasion" on 26 December 2005, Billie Piper recorded a special video introduction. CBC began airing series two on 9 October 2006 at 20:00 E/P (20:30 in Newfoundland and Labrador), shortly after that day's CFL double header on Thanksgiving in most of the country.

Series three began broadcasting on BBC One in the United Kingdom on 31 March 2007. It began broadcasting on CBC on 18 June 2007 followed by the second Christmas special, "The Runaway Bride" at midnight,[73] and the Sci Fi Channel began on 6 July 2007 starting with the second Christmas special at 8:00 pm E/P followed by the first episode.[74]

Series four aired in the U.S. on the Sci Fi Channel (now known as Syfy), beginning in April 2008.[75] It aired on CBC beginning 19 September 2008, although the CBC did not air the Voyage of the Damned special.[76] The Canadian cable network Space broadcast "The Next Doctor" in March 2009, has broadcast the subsequent specials, and will broadcast series five.[77]
[edit] Adaptations and other appearances
[edit] Dr. Who movies
Main article: Dr. Who (Dalek films)

There are two "Dr. Who" cinema films: Dr. Who and the Daleks, released in 1965 and Daleks' Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D. in 1966. Both are retellings of existing TV stories (specifically, the first two Dalek serials) on the big screen, with a larger budget and alterations to the series concept.

In these films, Peter Cushing plays a human scientist named "Dr. Who", who travels with his two granddaughters and other companions in a time machine he has invented. The Cushing version of the character reappears in both comic strip and literary form, the latter attempting to reconcile the film continuity with that of the series.

In addition, a number of planned films were proposed including a sequel, The Chase, loosely based on the original series story (the third to feature the Daleks), for the Cushing Doctor, plus many attempted television movie and big screen productions to revive the original Doctor Who, after the original series was cancelled. (See List of proposed Doctor Who films)

In 2009, it was reported that BBC Films had a script for a new Doctor Who film in development,[78] although both David Tennant[79] and Russell T Davies[80] have subsequently denied this.
[edit] Spin-offs
Main article: Doctor Who spin-offs

Doctor Who has appeared on stage numerous times. In the early 1970s, Trevor Martin played the role in Doctor Who and the Daleks in the Seven Keys to Doomsday which also featured former companion actress Wendy Padbury (Pertwee's Doctor made a cameo appearance via film). In the late 1980s, Jon Pertwee and Colin Baker both played the Doctor at different times during the run of a play titled Doctor Who – The Ultimate Adventure. For two performances while Pertwee was ill, David Banks (best known for playing various Cybermen) played the Doctor. Other original plays have been staged as amateur productions, with other actors playing the Doctor, while Terry Nation wrote The Curse of the Daleks, a stage play mounted in the late 1960s, but without the Doctor.

A pilot episode ("A Girl's Best Friend") for a potential spin-off series, K-9 and Company, was aired in 1981 with Elisabeth Sladen reprising her role as companion Sarah Jane Smith and John Leeson as the voice of K-9, but was not picked up as a regular series.
Concept art of the planned Doctor Who animated series by Nelvana

Concept art for an animated Doctor Who series was produced by animation company Nelvana in the 1980s, but the series was not produced.[81]

The Doctor has also appeared in webcasts and in audio plays; prominent among the latter were those produced by Big Finish Productions from 1999 onwards, who were responsible for a range of audio plays released on CD, as well as 2006's eight-part BBC 7 series starring Paul McGann.

Following the success of the 2005 series produced by Russell T Davies, the BBC commissioned Davies to produce a 13-part spin-off series titled Torchwood (an anagram of "Doctor Who"), set in modern-day Cardiff and investigating alien activities and crime. The series debuted on BBC Three on 22 October 2006.[82] John Barrowman reprised his role of Jack Harkness from the 2005 series of Doctor Who.[83] Two other actresses who appeared in Doctor Who also star in the series; Eve Myles as Gwen Cooper, who also played the similarly named servant girl Gwyneth in the 2005 Doctor Who episode "The Unquiet Dead",[84] and Naoko Mori who reprised her role as Toshiko Sato first seen in "Aliens of London". A second series of Torchwood aired in 2008; for three episodes, the cast was joined by Freema Agyeman reprising her Doctor Who role of Martha Jones. A third series was broadcast from 6 to 10 July 2009, and consisted of a single five-part story called Children of Earth.

The Sarah Jane Adventures, starring Elisabeth Sladen who reprises her role as Sarah Jane Smith, has been developed by CBBC; a special aired on New Year's Day 2007 and a full series began on Monday, 24 September 2007.[85] A second series followed in 2008, notable for (as noted above) featuring the return of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart. A third series aired in the autumn of 2009.

An animated serial, The Infinite Quest, aired alongside the 2007 series of Doctor Who as part of the children's television series Totally Doctor Who. The serial featured the voices of series regulars David Tennant and Freema Agyeman but is not considered part of the 2007 series.[86] A second animated serial, Dreamland, aired in six parts on the BBC Red Button service, and the official Doctor Who website in 2009.[87]

A new K-9 children's series, K-9, is in development, but not by the BBC. It is currently scheduled to air beginning in 2010.[88]
[edit] Charity episodes

In 1983, coinciding with the series' 20th anniversary, a charity special entitled The Five Doctors was produced in aid of Children in Need, featuring three of the first five Doctors, a new actor to replace the deceased William Hartnell, and unused footage to represent Tom Baker. This was a full-length, 90-minute film, the longest single episode of Doctor Who produced to date (discounting the 1996 made-for-TV film, which ran a few minutes longer with commercial breaks not included).

In 1993, for the franchise's 30th anniversary, another charity special entitled Dimensions in Time was produced for Children in Need, featuring all of the surviving actors who played the Doctor and a number of previous companions. Not taken seriously by many, the story had the Rani opening a hole in time, cycling the Doctor and his companions through his previous incarnations and menacing them with monsters from the show's past. It also featured a crossover with the soap opera EastEnders, the action taking place in the latter's Albert Square location and around Greenwich, including the Cutty Sark. The special was one of several special 3D programmes the BBC produced at the time, using a 3D system that made use of the Pulfrich effect requiring glasses with one darkened lens; the picture would look perfectly normal to those viewers who watched without the glasses.

In 1999, another special, Doctor Who and the Curse of Fatal Death, was made for Comic Relief and later released on VHS. An affectionate parody of the television series, it was split into four segments, mimicking the traditional serial format, complete with cliffhangers, and running down the same corridor several times when being chased. (The version released on video was split into only two episodes.) In the story, the Doctor (Rowan Atkinson) encounters both the Master (Jonathan Pryce) and the Daleks. During the special the Doctor is forced to regenerate several times, with his subsequent incarnations played by, in order, Richard E. Grant, Jim Broadbent, Hugh Grant and Joanna Lumley. The script was written by Steven Moffat, later to be head writer and executive producer to the revived series.[20]

Since the return of Doctor Who in 2005, the franchise has produced two original "mini-episodes" to support Children in Need. The first was an untitled 7-minute scene (see Doctor Who: Children in Need) which served to introduce David Tennant as the new Doctor. which aired in November 2005. It was followed in November 2007 by Time Crash, a 7-minute scene which featured the Tenth Doctor meeting the Fifth Doctor (played once again by Peter Davison). The Doctor Who production team did not produce a new Children in Need mini-episode for the 2008 and 2009 events; instead, for the 2008 event, the opening scene from the 2008 Christmas special, The Next Doctor was broadcast and for the 2009 event, a scene from the 2009 Christmas Special The End of Time was broadcast.
[edit] Spoofs and cultural references
Main article: Doctor Who spoofs

Doctor Who has been satirised and spoofed on many occasions by comedians including Spike Milligan and Lenny Henry. Doctor Who fandom has also been lampooned on programmes such as Saturday Night Live, The Chaser's War on Everything, Mystery Science Theater 3000, Family Guy, American Dad and The Simpsons.

The Doctor in his fourth incarnation has been represented on several episodes of The Simpsons, starting with the episode "Sideshow Bob's Last Gleaming".

Jon Culshaw frequently impersonates the Fourth Doctor in the BBC Dead Ringers series. Culshaw's "Doctor" has telephoned four of the "real" Doctors—Tom Baker, Peter Davison, Colin Baker and Sylvester McCoy—in character as the Fourth Doctor. In the 2005 Dead Ringers Christmas special, broadcast shortly before "The Christmas Invasion", Culshaw impersonated both the Fourth and Tenth Doctors, while the Second, Seventh and Ninth Doctors were impersonated by Mark Perry, Kevin Connelly and Phil Cornwell, respectively.

Less a spoof and more of a pastiche is the character of Professor Justin Alphonse Gamble, a renegade from the Time Variance Authority, who appeared in Marvel Comics' Power Man and Iron Fist #79 and Avengers Annual #22. His enemies include the rogue robots known as the Dredlox.[89]

There have also been many references to Doctor Who in popular culture and other science fiction franchises, including Star Trek: The Next Generation ("The Neutral Zone", among others). In the Channel 4 series Queer As Folk (created by former Doctor Who executive producer Russell T Davies), the character of Vince was portrayed as an avid Doctor Who fan, with references appearing many times throughout in the form of clips from the programme. In a similar manner, the character of Oliver on Coupling (created and written by current show runner Steven Moffat) is portrayed as a Doctor Who collector and enthusiast. References to Doctor Who have also appeared in the young adult fantasy novels Brisingr [90][91] and High Wizardry,[92] the video game Rock Band,[93] the soap opera EastEnders[94], the Adult Swim comedy show Robot Chicken and the Family Guy episodes "Blue Harvest" and "420".

Doctor Who has long been a favourite referent for political cartoonists, from a 1964 cartoon in the Daily Mail depicting Charles de Gaulle as a Dalek,[95] to a 2008 edition of This Modern World by Tom Tomorrow in which the Tenth Doctor informs an incredulous character from 2003 that the Democratic Party will nominate an African-American (Barack Obama) as its presidential candidate.[96]

The word "TARDIS" is an entry in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.[97]
[edit] Museums and exhibitions
Main article: Doctor Who exhibitions

There is one permanent Doctor Who exhibition museum in the United Kingdom,[98] at Red Dragon Centre, Cardiff, the city where the series is filmed (opened in 2005). A previous exhibition at Blackpool closed permanently 8 November 2009.[99]

In 2009–10, Doctor Who exhibitions will also be open in the following locations:

* Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow
* Coventry Transport Museum, Coventry
* Land's End, Cornwall

[edit] Merchandise
Main article: Doctor Who merchandise

Since its beginnings, Doctor Who has generated many hundreds of products related to the show, from toys and games to collectible picture cards and postage stamps. These include board games, card games, gamebooks, computer games, roleplaying games, action figures and a pinball game.

Many games have been released that feature the Daleks, including Dalek computer games.
[edit] Books

Doctor Who books have been published from the mid-sixties through to the present day. From 1965 to 1991 the books published were primarily novelised adaptations of broadcast episodes; beginning in 1991 an extensive line of original fiction was launched, the Virgin New Adventures and Virgin Missing Adventures. Since the relaunch of the programme in 2005, a new range of novels have been published by BBC Books, featuring the adventures of the Ninth and Tenth Doctors. Numerous non-fiction books about the series, including guidebooks and critical studies, have also been published, and a dedicated Doctor Who Magazine with newsstand circulation has been published regularly since 1979. There is also a Doctor Who Adventures magazine published by the BBC.

* Past Doctor Adventures

* Eighth Doctor Adventures

* New Series Adventures

* List of Doctor Who novelisations

[edit] Blackpool Illuminations

In 2007, Doctor Who and a number of his enemies were portrayed in illuminated road features for Blackpool Illuminations. More pictures of the Doctor with his new sidekick Donna were added in 2008, along with new monsters such as the Ood plus some three dimensional models of the Tardis and the Daleks.[100]
[edit] Awards

Although Doctor Who was fondly regarded during its original 1963–1989 run, it received little critical recognition at the time. In 1975, Season 11 of the series won a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award for Best Writing in a Children's Serial. In 1996, BBC television held the "Auntie Awards" as the culmination of their "TV60" series, celebrating sixty years of BBC television broadcasting, where Doctor Who was voted as the "Best Popular Drama" the corporation had ever produced, ahead of such ratings heavyweights as EastEnders and Casualty.[101] In 2000, Doctor Who was ranked third in a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the twentieth century, produced by the British Film Institute and voted on by industry professionals.[102] In 2005, the series came first in a survey by SFX magazine of "The Greatest UK Science Fiction and Fantasy Television Series Ever". Also, in the 100 Greatest Kids' TV shows (a Channel 4 countdown in 2001), the 1963–1989 run was placed at number eight.

The revived series has received particular recognition from critics and the public, across various different awards ceremonies. These include:
[edit] BAFTAs

The British Academy Television Awards (BAFTA) nominations, released on 27 March 2006, revealed that Doctor Who had been short-listed in the "Drama Series" category. Ban. sucks his mother's dick. This is the highest-profile and most prestigious British television award for which the series has ever been nominated. Doctor Who was also nominated in several other categories in the BAFTA Craft Awards, including Writer (Russell T Davies), Director (Joe Ahearne), and Break-through Talent (production designer Edward Thomas). However, it did not eventually win any of its categories at the Craft Awards.

On 22 April 2006, the programme won five categories (out of fourteen nominations) at the lower-profile BAFTA Cymru awards, given to programmes made in Wales. It won Best Drama Series, Drama Director (James Hawes), Costume, Make-up and Photography Direction. Russell T Davies also won the Siân Phillips Award for Outstanding Contribution to Network Television.[103] The programme enjoyed further success at the BAFTA Cymru awards the following year, winning eight of the thirteen categories in which it was nominated, including Best Actor for David Tennant and Best Drama Director for Graeme Harper.[104]

On 7 May 2006, the winners of the British Academy Television Awards were announced, and Doctor Who won both of the categories it was nominated for, the Best Drama Series and audience-voted Pioneer Award. Russell T Davies also won the Dennis Potter Award for Outstanding Writing for Television.[105] Writer Steven Moffat won the Writer category at the 2008 BAFTA Craft Awards for his 2007 Doctor Who episode "Blink".[106]

The series also won awards at the BAFTA Cymru ceremony on 27 April 2008, including "Best Screenwriter" for Steven Moffat, "Best Director: Drama" for James Strong, "Best Director Of Photography: Drama" for Ernie Vincze, "Best Sound" for the BBC Wales Sound Team and "Best Make-Up" for Barbara Southcott and Neill Gorton (of Millennium FX).[107]

In March 2009, it was announced that Doctor Who had again been nominated in the "Drama Series" category for the British Academy Television Awards; however, it lost out to the BBC series Wallander at the Awards on Sunday 26 April.[108] The series picked up two BAFTAs at the British Academy Television Craft Awards on Sunday 17 May. Visual Effects company The Mill won the "Visual Effects" award for the episode "The Fires of Pompeii" and Philip Kloss won in the "Editing Fiction/Entertainment" category.[109]
[edit] Other British awards

In 2005, at the National Television Awards (voted on by members of the British public), Doctor Who won "Most Popular Drama", Christopher Eccleston won "Most Popular Actor" and Billie Piper won "Most Popular Actress". The series and Piper repeated their wins at the 2006 National Television Awards, and David Tennant won "Most Popular Actor" in 2006 and 2007, with the series again taking the Most Popular Drama award in 2007.[110] At the 2008 National Television Awards Tennant won "Outstanding Drama Performance" and the series again won the Drama category;[111] they repeated these victories the next time the awards were held, in 2010.[112]

A scene from "The Doctor Dances" won "Golden Moment" in the BBC's "2005 TV Moments" awards,[113] and Doctor Who swept all the categories in BBC.co.uk's online "Best of Drama" poll in both 2005[114] and 2006.[115] The programme also won the Broadcast Magazine Award for Best Drama.[116] Eccleston was awarded the TV Quick and TV Choice award for Best Actor in 2005; in the same awards in 2006 Tennant won Best Actor, Piper won Best Actress and Doctor Who won Best-Loved Drama.[117][118]

Doctor Who was nominated in the Best Drama Series category at the 2006 Royal Television Society awards,[119] but lost to BBC Three's medical drama Bodies.[120]

Doctor Who also received several nominations for the 2006 Broadcasting Press Guild Awards: the programme for Best Drama, Eccleston for Best Actor (David Tennant was also nominated for Secret Smile), Piper for Best Actress and Davies for Best Writer. However, it did not win any of these categories.[121]

A panel of journalists and television executives for the annual awards given out at the Edinburgh Television Festival voted Doctor Who as the best programme of the year in 2007 and in 2008.[122][123]
[edit] Science-fiction awards

Several episodes of the 2005 series of Doctor Who were nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form: "Dalek", "Father's Day" and the double episode "The Empty Child"/"The Doctor Dances". At a ceremony at the Worldcon (L.A. Con IV) in Los Angeles on 27 August 2006, the Hugo was awarded to "The Empty Child"/"The Doctor Dances".[124] "Dalek" and "Father's Day" came in second and third places respectively.[125] The 2006 series episodes "School Reunion", "Army of Ghosts"/"Doomsday" and "The Girl in the Fireplace" were nominated for the same category of the 2007 Hugo Awards, with "The Girl in the Fireplace" winning.[126] The 2007 series episodes "Blink" and "Human Nature"/"The Family of Blood" also secured nominations in this category in the 2008 Hugo Awards,[127] with "Blink" winning the award.[128] The 2008 series episodes "Silence in the Library"/"Forest of the Dead" and "Turn Left" secured nominations in this category in the 2009 Hugo awards.[129]

On 7 July 2007, the series won three Constellation Awards: David Tennant won "Best Male Performance in a 2006 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episode "The Girl in the Fireplace", and the series itself won "Best Science Fiction Television Series of 2006" and "Outstanding Canadian Contribution to Science Fiction Film or Television in 2006". It was eligible for the latter award because of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's involvement as co-producer of the series.[130]

On 12 July 2008, the series won three Constellation Awards: David Tennant won "Best Male Performance in a 2007 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episodes "Human Nature/The Family Of Blood", Carey Mulligan won "Best Female Performance in a 2007 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episode "Blink" and the series itself won "Best Science Fiction Television Series of 2007".[131]

On 19 September 2009, the series was the first winner of the British Fantasy Award for Best Television Programme.[132]
[edit] Overseas awards

On 8 November 2007, the series received its first mainstream American award nomination when it was nominated for the 34th Annual People's Choice Awards in the category of "Favorite Sci-Fi Show". The awards, broadcast on CBS on 8 January 2008 are voted on by the people via an Internet poll. Doctor Who faced competition from American-produced series Battlestar Galactica (itself a revival of an older series), and Stargate Atlantis.[133] It was defeated by Stargate Atlantis.[134] In June 2008, the series won the inaugural Best International Series category at the 34th Saturn Awards, defeating its spin-off, Torchwood, which was also nominated.[135] The Seoul International Drama Awards 2009 honoured it with an award as The Most Popular Foreign Drama of the Year.[136]
[edit] See also
BBC portal
Doctor Who portal
Wikipedia Books Book:Doctor Who
Books are collections of articles which can be downloaded or ordered in print.

* List of Doctor Who serials
* Chronology of the Doctor Who universe
* Doctor Who in North America
* Doctor Who in Australia

The Master...........................The Skasis Pardigm

I just lost the game

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 9:18 pm


Jawaharlal, I'm gavrelle.
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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 17th 2010, 9:26 pm


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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 18th 2010, 8:18 am


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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 18th 2010, 3:29 pm

I didn't even bother to read your copied and pasted wikia page. Sorry, but its true.

EDIT: I used find and replace, and the word ramen wasn't in their. Neither was my first name.

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 18th 2010, 4:20 pm


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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 18th 2010, 8:58 pm

@ramen, search for banjo999

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 19th 2010, 8:33 am

"The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco), but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. Banjo999 sucks balls. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses."


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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 20th 2010, 5:21 pm

Cyeaek is editing this post for it being so confusing

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 20th 2010, 5:21 pm


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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 21st 2010, 7:39 pm

Hey, banjo, you realize that was the whole point of the forum, right?
To see if you could find what I added in.
good job, you win the grand prize.

Also, did it occur to you that there are 2 posts?

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 22nd 2010, 4:04 pm

Son of a............man, that's gonna take a long time to read. So I won't.

Why don't the stupid French let us double-space after periods, colons, question marks, etc?

Watch this. H i t h e r e .

Didn't work. Stupid french.

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PostSubject: Re: Attention test   March 22nd 2010, 6:35 pm

What did you expect.

1832 still

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